Is ALS an immune system problem? Neuroinflammation might be involved in the degeneration and progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Here, we studied the role of the circulating lymphocytes in ALS, in particular the NK cells. We focused on the relationship between blood lymphocytes, ALS clinical subtype and disease severity. Subjects and Methods Blood samples were collected from 92 patients with sporadic ALS, 21 patients with Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS) and 37 patients affected by primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) with inactive plaques. Blood was taken from ALS and controls at the time of diagnosis/referral. Circulating lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry with specific antibodies. Values were expressed as absolute number (n°/µl) of viable lymphocytes subpopulations in ALS were compared with controls. Multivariable analysis was made using site of onset, gender changes in ALSFRS-R and disease progression rate (calculated as ΔFS score). Results Age at onset was 65y (58–71) in ALS (spinal 67.4%; bulbar, 32.6%), 57y (48–78) in PLS and 56y (44–68) PPMS. Absolute blood levels of the lymphocytes in the different cohorts were within normal range. Furthermore, while levels of lymphocytes T and B were not different between disease groups, NK cells were increased in the ALS cohort (ALS = 236 [158–360] vs. Controls = 174[113–240], p < 0.001). In ALS, blood levels of NK cells were not related with the main clinical-demographic variables, including the rate of disease progression. Multivariable analysis suggested that male gender and bulbar onset were independently associated with a risk of high blood NK cells levels. Conclusions We show that blood NK cells are selectively increased in ALS, though their level appear unaffected in patients with an estimated rapidly progressing disease. Being of a male gender and with a bulbar onset seems to confer higher susceptibility to have increased NK lymphocytes levels at diagnosis/referral. Our experiments provides a further clear-cut evidence of the role of the NK lymphocytes as a significant player in ALS pathogenesis.