Who governs private schools in South Africa? The South African Schools Act (SASA) of 1996 established a national schooling system and recognised two categories of schools: public and independent. Public schools are state controlled and independent schools are privately governed. All private schools were included into the independent school category. Within the public school category, SASA created a sub-category of “public schools on private property” comprising state schools on private land owned by religious bodies, farmers, mines and forestry companies. The South African definition of independent schools is a narrow one compared to other developing countries, especially as it does not include the “public schools on private property”. In terms of Section 29 of the Constitution of South Africa, everyone has the right to establish, at his or her own expense, independent educational institutions. These institutions may not discriminate on the basis of race, must be registered with the state, and must maintain standards not inferior to those of comparable public institutions. State subsidies to independent institutions are permitted, but not guaranteed. The South African government has a long history of regulating private schools. The current system was established in 1998, when the government passed the Private Schools Act. This act created a new system of accreditation and registration for private schools, and set up a Board of Education to oversee the private school sector. The Board of Education is responsible for accrediting private schools and ensuring that they meet the minimum standards set by the government. The Board can also investigate complaints about private schools and take action if necessary. Private schools are required to be accredited by the Board of Education in order to operate legally in South Africa. The accreditation process is designed to ensure that private schools meet the minimum standards set by the government. Private schools must also register with the Board of Education. This registration process helps the Board to keep track of private schools and to ensure that they are complying with the law. The Board of Education has the power to investigate complaints about private schools. If the Board finds that a private school is not complying with the law, it can take action against the school. This action can include ordering the school to close, or suspending the school’s accreditation. The Board of Education is the ultimate authority on private schools in South Africa. However, the day-to-day management of private schools is often left to the schools themselves. This means that private schools have a great deal of autonomy when it comes to decisions about curriculum, staffing, and other matters. In South Africa, public education is generally more expensive than private education, but it is generally more effective. Students from low-income and middle-income families attend the majority of these schools. Fees and other factors determine the amount of money students must pay to attend private schools (or independent schools). In South Africa, CAPS (National Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement) is the curriculum adopted by the government and implemented in public schools. Many private schools as well as public schools participate in this curriculum. However, some of these schools are also “IEB” schools.